- Bavarian Army after the First World War: the identity problems of officers, new affiliations with Russian exiles and cooperation across new borders
- Foreign Officers and High Officials in the Romanian Countries between 1710 and 1810. Origin, Paths Followed, Missions
- The Austrian Military, Its Role and Implication in Building State Loyalty in the Context of Political and National Movements – Neoabsolutism and Liberalism, 1849-1867
The period taken into consideration is fully justified as it has some characteristics sketched by international political and military developments, being one of extensive metamorphosis in terms of military organization, of institutional and state transformations, of behavioral changes at individual and group level, etc. In this chronological sequence, very many Europeans, but not only, were part of diverse military structures, beginning with the military forces of the German, Habsburg, Ottoman and Russian Empires, continuing with the recent affiliation of many soldiers from multiple continents to armies and forces of intervention of supranational institutions.This session aims to understand the dynamics of military loyalties in a broader perspective that includes the affirmation of national identities, the political contexts of the modernization of institutions, but also the way the subordination of military power to political power has been achieved. Moreover, in modern and contemporary times, foreign armies have temporarily occupied territories of other states, and those armed multinational armies have generated, beyond the negative aspects concerning the inherent abuses, modernizing phenomena whithin the occupied territories. It is interesting to reenact in this perspective the relationships between locals and the soldiers of these foreign armies.